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    According to legend, in 832 A.D. King Óengus (II) (or King Angus) led the Picts and Scots in battle against the Angles under King Aethelstan of East Anglia near modern-day Athelstaneford in East Lothian. King Angus and his men were surrounded and he prayed for deliverance. During the night Saint Andrew, who was martyred on a saltire cross, appeared to Angus and assured him of victory. On the following morning a white saltire against the background of a blue sky appeared to both sides. The Picts and Scots were heartened by this, but the Angles lost confidence and were defeated. This saltire design has been the Scottish flag ever since.


      The Tricolor of The Netherlands is the oldest tricolour, first appearing in 1572 as the Prince's Flag in orange–white–blue. Soon the more famous red–white–blue began appearing — it is however unknown why, though many stories are known. After 1630 the red–white–blue was the most commonly seen flag. The Dutch Tricolor has inspired many flags but most notably those of Russia, India and France, which spread the tricolor concept even further, as can be seen below. The Flag of the Netherlands is also the only flag in the world that is adapted for some uses, when the occasion has a connection to the royal house of the Netherlands an orange ribbon is added.


        A sausage consists of ground meat, animal fat, salt, and spices, and sometimes other ingredients such as herbs, usually packed in a casing. Sausage making is a very old food preservation technique.

        Historically the casing has been the intestines of the animal, though it is now generally synthetic. Sausage may be fresh or preserved by curing or smoking.

        There is no consensus on whether similar products that are not packed in casings - such as pâté, meatloaf, scrapple, and head cheese - should be considered sausages.


          Diphallia, penile duplication (PD), diphallic terata, or diphallasparatus, is a medical condition in which a male infant is born with two penises. This is an extremely rare disorder with only approximately 100 such cases of diphallus recorded since the first case reported by Wecker in 1609. Its occurrence is one in 5.5 million men in the United States.[1][2]

          When diphallia is present, it is usually accompanied by other congenital anomalies such as renal, vertebral, hindgut or anorectal duplication. There is also a higher risk of spina bifida. Infants born with PD and its related conditions have a higher death rate from various infections associated with their more complex renal or colorectal systems.

          It is thought diphallia occurs in the fetus between the 23rd and 25th days of gestation when an injury, chemical stress, or malfunctioning homeobox genes hamper proper function of the caudal cell mass of the fetal mesoderm as the urogenital sinus separates from the genital tubercle and rectum to form the penis.


            Polyorchidism is the incidence of more than two testes. It is a very rare congenital disorder, with under 100 cases reported in medical literature. The most common form is triorchidism, or tritestes, where three testes are present. The condition is usually asymptomatic, but can increase the risk of testicular cancer.

            Polyorchidism occurs in several forms:

            Type 1: The supernumerary testis lacks an epididymis and vas deferens and has no connection to the other testes.
            Type 2: The supernumerary testis shares the epididymis and the vas deferens of the other testes.
            Type 3: The supernumerary testis has its own epididymis and shares a vas deferens.
            Type 4: Complete duplication of the testis, epididymis and vas deferens.
            Type 2 is the most common form of polyorchidism, and types 2 and 3 together account for more than 90% of cases. Except in type 1, the supernumerary testis is usually reproductively functional. The supernumerary testis is most often found in the left scrotal sac.

            Polyorchidism is generally diagnosed via an ultrasound examination of the testicles.

            Polyorchidism alone does not increase testosterone production.


              Polycephaly is the condition of having more than one head. By far the most common use is in relation to the anatomical head, though the word has also been used for other meanings of "head". The term is derived from the stems poly- meaning 'many' and kephal- meaning "head", and encompasses bicephaly and dicephaly (both referring to two-headedness). A variation is an animal born with two faces on a single head, a condition known as diprosopus. In medical terms these are all congenital cephalic disorders.

              There are many occurrences of multi-headed animals, in real life as well as in mythology. Many fantasy universes contain races of creatures with multiple heads. In heraldry and vexillology, the double-headed eagle is a common symbol, though no such animal is known to have ever existed.

              Bicephalic animals are the only type of multi-headed creatures seen in the real world and form by the same process as conjoined twins: the zygote begins to split but fails to completely separate. One extreme example of this is the condition of craniopagus parasiticus, whereby a fully developed body has a parasitic twin head joined at the skull.


                A supernumerary nipple (also known as a third nipple, accessory nipple, polythelia or polymastia) is an additional nipple occurring in mammals, including humans. Often mistaken for moles, supernumerary nipples are diagnosed at a rate of 2% in women, lower in men. The nipples appear along the two vertical "milk lines", which start in the armpit on each side, run down through the typical nipples and end at the groin. They are classified into eight levels of completeness from a simple patch of hair to a milk-bearing breast in miniature. Polythelia refers to the presence of an additional nipple alone while polymastia denotes the much rarer presence of additional mammary glands.


                  Polymelia (from Greek πολυ- = "many" plus μέλος (plural μέλεα) = "limb") is a birth defect involving limbs (a type of dysmelia), in which the affected individual has more than the usual number of limbs. In humans and most land-dwelling animals, this means having five or more limbs. The extra limb is most commonly shrunken and/or deformed.

                  Sometimes an embryo started as conjoined twins, but one twin degenerated completely except for one or more limbs, which end up attached to the other twin.

                  Sometimes small extra legs between the normal legs are caused by the body axis forking in the dipygus condition.

                  Frogs in the USA sometimes are affected by polymelia: see Ribeiroia.




                      bumpity bumpity