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The Counting Thread

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      1063

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        1064
        Confusion is a natural state of being

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            Harald Hardrada, King of Norway, invades England

            Hardicanute, King of Denmark, had also been king of England in 1042. His short reign gave his descendents, who included Harald Hardrada, King of Norway, a claim to the English throne. When Harold Godwinson became king of England on the death of Edward the Confessor, Hardrada joined forces with Tostig, Harold's brother, and took an invasion fleet of approximately 300 ships to England to press his own claim. He raided the east coast, burning Scarborough, then sailed up the Humber river.

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              1067

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                1068
                Confusion is a natural state of being

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                  1069

                  ooeeerrrr

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                    First Norman stone castle is built in Wales

                    The Normans quickly advanced into Wales, using castles to subdue the surrounding countryside. Most of the early castles were of the motte-and-bailey type, but around 1070 the earl of Hereford built a stone castle at Chepstow. In the 1090s, the Welsh successfully rose in revolt. Wales was then governed in regions still under native rule, but dominated by powerful Norman lordships known as the 'Marcher Lords'. All were obliged to recognise the overlordship of the king of England.

                    William the Conqueror subdues the north of England

                    From his base in the south east of England, William imposed Norman rule on the south west, the Midlands and Yorkshire. In 1069, multiple revolts culminated in an invasion by Sven II, King of Denmark. William defeated the rebels and laid waste to the country between Nottingham and York, causing a widespread famine in 1070. In pacifying England, William transformed its social structure. About 4,000 English earls were dispossessed and replaced by about 200 Norman and compliant English barons.

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                      1071

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